UK Research on The Eutrophication and Acidification of Terrestrial Ecosystems

Scientific Papers

Bobbink, R.; Hicks, K.; Galloway, J.; Spranger, T.; Alkemade, R.; Ashmore, M.; Bustamante, M.; Cinderby, S.; Davidson, E.; Dentener, F.; Emmett, B.; Erisman, J.-W.; Fenn, M.; Gilliam, F.; Nordin, A.; Pardo, L.; de Vries, W.. 2010 Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis. Ecological Applications, 20 (1). 30-59. 10.1890/08-

Butler (2010) The GBMOVE ensemble: Technical Summary. Biomathematics & Statistics Scotland, Edinburgh. Report to Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.

de Vries, W., et al. (2010) Use of dynamic soil-vegetation models to assess impacts of nitrogen deposition on plant species composition and to estimate critical loads: an overview. Ecological Applications 20, 60-79.

Keith, S.A. et al (2010) Taxonomic homogenization of woodland plant communities over 70 years. Proc. R. Soc. Series B. 276, 3539-3544.

Maskell, L.C., et al (2010) Nitrogen deposition causes widespread loss of species richness in British habitats. Global Change Biology 16, 671-679.

Stevens, C.J. et al (2010) Contribution of acidification and eutrophication to declines in species richness of calcifuge grasslands along a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Functional Ecology 24, 478-484.

Smart, S.M., et al. (2010) Empirical realized niche models for British higher and lower plants - development and preliminary testing. Journal of Vegetation Science 21, 643-656.

Tipping E., Chamberlain PM, Bryant CL, Buckingham S, 2010.  Soil organic matter turnover in British deciduous woodlands, quantified with radiocarbon.  Geoderma 155, 10-18.

Britton, A.J., Beale, C.M., Towers, W. & Hewison, R.L. (2009) Biodiversity gains and losses: evidence for homogenization of Scottish alpine vegetation. Biological Conservation 142, 1728-1739.

Butler, A., Smart, SM. (2009) Comparative test of methods to develop niche models for British vegetation. Interim Technical Report. Biomathematics & Statistics Scotland, Edinburgh. Report to Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.

Caporn, S.J., and Emmett, B.A.  2009.  Threats from air pollution and climate change to upland systems: past, present and future.  In: Drivers of Environmental change in Uplands.  Eds: Aletta Bonn, Tim Allott, Klaus Hubacek and Jon Stewart,  pp 34-58.  Abingdon, Routledge.

Duprè, C. Et al (2009) Changes in species richness and composition in European acidic grasslands over the past 70 years: the contribution of cumulative atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Global Change Biology 16,344-357.

Langan, S.L, Fransson, L. and Vanguelova, E. (2009).  Dynamic modelling of the response of UK forest soils to changes in acid deposition using the SAFE model. Science of the Total Environment.  Volume 407, Issue 21, 5605-5619.

Rowe, E.C., et al. (2009a) Defining a biodiversity damage metric and threshold using Habitats Directive criteria. Proceedings of COST 729 Nitrogen Deposition and Natura 2000 Workshop, Brussels, 28-20 May 2009.

Rowe, E.C., et al. (2009b) A single metric for defining biodiversity damage using Habitats Directive criteria. In: CCE Status Report 2009: Progress in the modelling of critical thresholds, impacts to plant species diversity and ecosystem services in Europe. (eds J.-P. Hettelingh, M. Posch & J. Slootweg), pp. 101-108. ICP Modelling and Mapping Coordination Centre for Effects.

Stevens, C.J. et al (2009) Regional trends in soil acidification and metal mobilization related to acid deposition. Environmental Pollution 157, 313-329.

Horswill P (Horswill, Paul), O'Sullivan O (O'Sullivan, Odhran)1, Phoenix GK (Phoenix, Gareth K.)1, Lee JA (Lee, John A.)1, Leake JR (Leake, Jonathan R.)1(2008) Base cation depletion, eutrophication and acidification of species-rich grasslands in response to long-term simulated nitrogen deposition. Env. Pollution 155 : 336-349 

Arroniz-Crespo M (Arroniz-Crespo, Maria)1, Leake JR (Leake, Jonathan R.)1, Horton P (Horton, Peter)2, Phoenix GK (Phoenix, Gareth K.)1  (2008) Bryophyte physiological responses to, and recovery from, long-term nitrogen deposition and phosphorus fertilisation in acidic grassland. New Phytologist 180: 864-874

Evans C (Evans, Chris D.)1, Goodale C (Goodale, Christine L.)2, Caporn S (Caporn, Simon J. M.)3, Dise N (Dise, Nancy B.)3, Emmett B (Emmett, Bridget A.)1, Fernandez I (Fernandez, Ivan J.)4, Field C (Field, Chris D.)3, Findlay S (Findlay, Stuart E. G.)5, Lovett G (Lovett, Gary M.)5, Meesenburg H (Meesenburg, Henning)6, Moldan F (Moldan, Filip)7, Sheppard L (Sheppard, Lucy J.)8 (2008) Does elevated nitrogen deposition or ecosystem recovery from acidification drive increased dissolved organic carbon loss from upland soil? A review of evidence from field nitrogen addition experiments Biogeochemistry 91: 13-35. 

Kalaitzidis C (Kalaitzidis, C.)1, Caporn SJM (Caporn, S. J. M.)1, Cutler MEJ (Cutler, M. E. J.)2  (2008) Estimating foliar nitrogen concentration of heather (Calluna vulgaris) from field and laboratory spectra  Water Air and Soil Pollution 194: 57-66 

Britton et al (2008) Interactive effects of nitrogen deposition and fire on plant and soil chemistry in an alpine heathland. Environmental Pollution 156, 409-416.

Phuyal M (Phuyal, Mukunda)1, Artz RRE (Artz, Rebekka R. E.)2, Sheppard L (Sheppard, Lucy)3, Leith ID (Leith, Ian D.)3, Johnson D (Johnson, David)1 (2008) Long-term nitrogen deposition increases phosphorus limitation of bryophytes in an ombrotrophic bog. Plant Ecology 196: 111-121

Prendergast-Miller M (Prendergast-Miller, Miranda)2, Cole L (Cole, Lisa)3, Standen V (Standen, Valerie)4, Rees R (Rees, Robert)5, Parker J (Parker, John)5, Leith I (Leith, Ian)1, Sheppard L (Sheppard, Lucy)1 (2008) Are enchytraeid worms (Oligochaeta) sensitive indicators of ammonia-N impacts on an ombrotrophic bog? European Jounral of Soil Biology 44 : 101-108

Beier, C., Emmett, B.A., Peñuelas, J., Schmidtd, I.K., Tietema, A., Estiarte, M., Gundersen, P., Llorens, L., Riis-Nielsen, T., Sowerby, A. and Gorissen, A. (2008). Carbon and nitrogen cycles in European ecosystems respond differently to global warming. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 692-697.

Green, S. M. and Cresser, M. S. 2008  Nitrogen cycle disruption through the application of de-icing salts on upland highways.  Water Air Soil Pollution 188:139–153

Rowe, E.C., Smart, S.M., Kennedy, V.H., Emmett, B.A. and Evans, C.D.  2008.  Nitrogen deposition increases the acquisition of phosphorus and potassium by heather Calluna vulgaris.  Environmental Pollution, 155, 201-207.

Toberman, H., Evans, C.D., Freeman, C., Fenner, N., White, M., Emmett, B.A. and Artz, R.R.E.  2008.  Summer drought effects upon soil and litter extracellular phenol oxidase activity and soluble carbon release in an upland Calluna heathland.  Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, 1519-1532.

Estiarte, M., Penuelas, J., Sardans, J., Emmett, B.A., Sowerby, A., Beier, C., Schmidt, I.K., Tietema, A., Van Meeteren, M.J.M., Kovacs Lang, E., Mathe, P., De Angelis, P., De Dato, G. 2008.  Root-surface phosphatase activity in shrublands across a European gradient: Effects of warming. Journal of Environmental Biology, 29(10), 25-29.

Sowerby, A., Emmett, B.A., Tietema, A. and Bier, C.  2008.  Contrasting effects of repeated summer drought on soil carbon efflux in hydric and mesic heathland soils.  Global Change Biology, 14 (10),  2388–2404,

J.A. Carfrae, L.J. Sheppard, J.A. Raven, I.D. Leith and A. Crossley.2007 Potassium and phosphorus additions modify the response of Sphagnum capillifolium growing on a Scottish ombrotrophic bog to enhanced nitrogen deposition. Applied Geochemistry 22. 1111-1121.

Jones M.R., Leith, I.D., Fowler, D., Raven, J.A., Sutton, M.A., Nemitz, E., Cape, J.N., Sheppard, L.J., Smith, R.I. & Theobald, M.R. 2007. Concentration-dependent NH3 deposition processes for mixed moorland semi-natural vegetation. Atmospheric Environment 41 2049-2060.

Emmett, B.A.  2007.  Nitrogen saturation of terrestrial ecosystems: some recent findings and their implications for our conceptual framework.  Water Air and Soil Pollution: Focus, 7, 99-109.

Britton, A.J. & Fisher, J.F. 2007. Interactive effects of nitrogen deposition, fire and grazing on diversity and composition of low-alpine prostrate Calluna vulgaris heathland. Journal of Applied Ecology 44, 125-135.

Cresser, M.S. 2007.  Why critical loads of acidity and N for soils should be based on pollutant effective concentrations rather than deposition fluxes, Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus, 7: 407-412.

Tipping, E., Thacker, S.A., Wilson, D., Hall, J.R., 2008. Long-term nitrate increases in two oligotrophic lakes, due to the leaching of atmospherically-deposited N from moorland ranker soils.  Environmental  Pollution. Volume 152, Issue 1, Pages 41-49

Penuelas, J., Prieto P., Beier, C., Cesaraccioz, C., De Angelis, P., DeDatos, G.,  Emmett, BA., Estiarte, M., Garadnai, J., Gorissen, A., KovacsLang, E., Kroel-Dulay, G., Llorens, L, Pellizzaro, G., Riis-Nielsen, T., Schmidt, I.K., Sirca, C., Sowerby, A., Spano, D and Tietema, A. 2007.  Response of plant species richness and primary productivity in shrublands along a north-south gradients in Europe to seven years of experimental warming and drought: reductions in primary productivity in the heat and drought year of 2003.  Global Change Biology, 13, 2563-2581. 

Vanguelova, E.I., Barsoum, N., Benham, S., Broadmeadow, M., Moffat, A., Nisbet, T. and Pitman, R. 2007. Ten years of intensive environmental monitoring of British forests. Forestry Commission Information Note 88.

Vanguelova, E.I., Nortcliff, S., Moffat,A., Kennedy, F. 2007. Short term effects of acid manipulation on soil, soil solution and fine roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand on a podzol. Plant and Soil . Volume 294 , Numbers 1-2 41:54

Cresser, M.S., Ahmed, N., Smart, R.P., Arowolo, T., Calver, L.J. and Chapman, P.J. 2006 Predicting Gran alkalinity and calcium concentrations in river waters over a national scale using a novel modification to the G-BASH model, Environmental Pollution, 143, 361-366.

Smart, S., Ashmore, M., Hornung, M., Scott, W., Fowler., D., Dragosits, U., Howard, D., Sutton, M. and Famulari, D. 2005.   Detecting the signal of atmospheric N deposition in recent national-scale vegetation change across Britain. Water, Air & Soil Pollution: Focus, 4 (6), 269-278.

Smart, R.P., Cresser, M.S., Calver, L.J., Clark, M. and Chapman, P.J., 2005.  A novel modeling approach for spatial and temporal variations in nitrate concentrations in an N-impacted UK small upland river basin, Environmental Pollution, 136, 63-70.

Pilkington.M.G., Caporn. S.J.M., Carroll.J.A., Creswell. N., Lee. J.A., Emmett. B.A., Johnson. D. 2005 Effects of increased deposition of nitrogen on an upland Calluna moor:N and P transformations.  Environmental Pollution 135, 469-480

M.G. Pilkington, S.J.M. Caporn, J.A. Carroll, N. Cresswell C, J.A. Lee, B. Reynolds, B.A. Emmett. 2005 Effects of increased deposition of atmospheric nitrogen on an upland moor: Nitrogen budgets and nutrient accumulation.  Environmental Pollution 138 473-484

M.G. Pilkington, S.J.M. Caporn, J.A. Carroll, N. Cresswell, J.A. Leed, T.W. Ashenden, S.A. Brittain, B. Reynolds, B.A. Emmet. 2005 Effects of increased deposition of atmospheric nitrogen on an upland moor: leaching of N species and soil solution chemistry.  Environmental Pollution 135  29–40

Bareham, S. and Emmett, B.A. 2004.  Danger from the skies.  In: Natur Cymru  No 13: 34-36.

Carfrae, J.A., Sheppard, L.J., Raven, J., Stein, W., Leith, I.D., Theobald, M. and Crossley A. 2004  Early effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) deposition on Calluna vulgaris (L.) growing on an ombrotrophic peat bog.  Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 4 229-239.

Chiwa, M, Crossley, A, Sheppard, LJ, Sakugawa, H & Cape, JN, 2004. throughfall chemistry and canopy interactions in a Sitka spruce plantation sprayed with six different simulated polluted mist treatments. Environmental Pollution 127 57-64.

Curtis, C.J., Emmett, B.A., Reynolds, B., and Shilland, J. 2004.  Nitrate leaching from moorland soils: can soil C:N ratios indicate N saturation?  Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 4: 359-369.  CEH Project No C00794.

Evans, C.D., Reynolds, B., Curtis, C.J., Crook, H.D., Norris, D., Brittain, S.A.  2004.  A conceptual model of spatially heterogeneous nitrogen leaching from a Welsh moorland catchment.  Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 4: 97-105.

Fowler, D., Muller, JBA and Sheppard, LJ. 2004. The GANE programme in a global Perspective. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 4 3-6.

Gidman, E., Goodacre, R., Emmett, B., Sheppard, L.J., Leith, I.D. & Gwynn-Jones, D. 2004.  Applying metabolic fingerprinting to ecology: The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the rapid screening of plant responses to N deposition.  Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 4, 251-258.

Jones, M.L.M., Wallace, H.L., Norris, D., Brittain, S.A., Haria, S., Jones, R.E., Rhind, P.M., Reynolds, B.R., Emmett, B.A., 2004. Changes in vegetation and soil characteristics in coastal sand dunes along a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Plant Biology, 6 (5), 598-605.

Kennedy, F. and Pitman, R. 2004. Factors affecting the nitrogen status of soils and ground flora in Beech woodland. Forest Ecology and Management,198, 1-14.

Langan S., Hall, J., Reynolds, B., Breadmeadow, M., Hornung, M., Cresser, M.,  2004. The development of an approach to assess critical loads of acidity for woodland habitats in Great Britain.  Hydrology & Earth System Sciences, 8: 355-365.

Leith I., Sheppard L., Jones M., Carfrae J., Pitcairn C., Fowler D., Cape N., Tang S., Ingleby K. and Wilson P. 2004. The processes of controlling uptake of N and the effects of N deposition on semi-natural vegetation. Final report. Defra.

Leith, I.D., Sheppard, L.J., Fowler, Cape, J.N., Jones, M., Crossley, A., Hargreaves, K.J, Tang, Y.S., Theobald, M and Sutton, M.A.. 2004. Quantifying dry NH3 deposition to an ombrotrophic bog from an automated NH3 release system.  Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 4 207-218.

Power, S.A., Ashmore, M.R., Terry, A.C., Caporn, S.J.M., Pilkington, M.G., Wilson, D.B., Barker, C.G., Carroll, J.A., Cresswell, N., Green, E.R. & Heil, G.W. 2004. Linking field experiments to long-term simulation of impacts of nitrogen deposition on heathlands and moorlands. Water, Air and Soil Pollution; Focus 4, 259-267.

Reynolds, B., Stevens, P.A., Brittain, S.A., Norris, D.A., Hughes, S., Woods, C. 2004.  Long-term changes in precipitation and stream water chemistry in small forest and moorland catchments at Beddgelert Forest, North Wales.  Hydrology and Earth systems Science, 8(3): 436-448.

Reynolds, B., Cullen, J., Finnegan, D., Fowler, D., Jenkins, A., Jenkins, R., Metcalfe, S.E., Norris, D.A., Ormerod, S.J. and Whyatt, D.2004. A scoping study for a Welsh acid waters strategy.  In: Managing our aquatic environment in the 21st Century:  contemporary issues of water quality.  Edited by Colin Neal and Ian Littlewood, BHS National Meeting, The Institution of Civil Engineers, London, 12th November 2003.  BHS Occasional Paper No 14.  100p. .

Sheppard, L.J., Crossley, A., Leith, I.D., Hargreaves, K.J., Carfrae, J.A., van Dijk, N, Cape, J.N., Sleep, D, Fowler, D, Raven. 2004 An automated wet deposition system to compare the effects of reduced and oxidised N on ombrotrophic bog species: practical considerations.  Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 4 197-205.

Sheppard, LJ, Crossley, A, Harvey, FJ, Skiba, U, Coward, P & Ingleby K. 2004 Effects of five years of frequent N additions, with or without acidity, on the growth and below-ground dynamics of a young Sitka spruce stand growing on an acid peat: implications for sustainability. Hydrology and Earths Systems Sciences 8 377-391.

Sheppard, L.J., Leith, I.D. and Crossley, A. 2004. Effects of enhanced N deposition on Cladonia portentosa; Results from a field manipulation study. ‘Nitrogen in the Environment’.  British Lichen Society Workshop, Nettlecombe, Somerset.
Lichens in a changing environment. Eds Lamberley P and Wolsey P. English Nature Research Report 525, 84-89

Skiba, U, Pitcairn, C, Sheppard, LJ, Kennedy, V & Fowler D 2004 The influence of atmospheric N deposition on Nitrous oxide and nitric oxide fluxes and soil ammonium and nitrate concentrations. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 4 37-43.

Skinner, R., Ineson, P., Hicks, W.K., Jones, H.E., Sleep, D., Leith, I.D. and Sheppard, L.J.  2004. Correlating the spatial distribution of atmospheric ammonia with d15N values at an ammonia Release site.  Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 4 219-228.

Smart, S.M. & Scott, W. A.  2004. Bias in Ellenberg indicator values
– problems with detection of the effect of vegetation type.  Journal of Vegetation Science 15: 843-846

Sutton et al 2004. Exposure of ecosystems to atmospheric ammonia in the UK and the development of practical bioindicator methods. British Lichen Society Workshop, Nettlecombe, Somerset. Lichens in a changing environment. Eds Lamberley P and Wolsey P. English Nature Research Report 525, 51-55.

Terry, A.C., Ashmore, M.R., Power, S.A., Allchin E.A. & Heil, G.W. (2004) Modelling the impacts of elevated atmospheric nitrogen deposition on Calluna-dominated ecosystems in the UK. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 897-909.

Williams, D., Emmett, B.A., Brittain, S.A., Reynolds, B., Stevens, P.A., Bentham, D.  2004.  The Gane Roof Project: The impact of reduced N & S deposition and experimental warming in an acid grassland.  Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 4: 187-196.

J.A. Carroll, S.J.M. Caporn, D. Johnson, M.D. Morecroft, J.A. Lee. 2003. The interactions between plant growth, vegetation structure and soil processes in semi-natural acidic and calcareous grasslands receiving long-term inputs of simulated pollutant nitrogen deposition.  Environmental Pollution 121, 363–376

Page published: 27/08/2010